Alwaght- Millions of commuters cycled, trudged and waited in snaking bus queues as a strike by London Underground station staff shut down much of the city's subway network.
There was a 149 per cent increase in Santander cycle hires while commuters opting for buses have complained of overcrowding.
"It is really scary out there, cyclists are taking huge chances," a doctor in London told Telegraph daily, adding that "the traffic is mad."
London authorities deployed extra personal called "travel ambassadors" to help people get around the city and around 150 extra buses were deployed to enhance existing routes.
Long queues at taxi ranks could also be seen, with little sign of any available cabs.
Although National Rail services were not affected by the strike there were no Underground services from key interchange stations such as Victoria, King's Cross, Waterloo, Paddington, Euston, Bank and London Bridge.
Southern Railway passengers will suffer a fresh bout of chaos on Tuesday, Wednesday and Friday when Aslef drivers go on strike in a bitter dispute over driver-only trains.
Southern told passengers to travel only if it was essential, as no trains will run on strike days, while services on other days will be affected by a continuing ban on overtime.
British Airways cabin crew will strike on Tuesday and Wednesday in a row over pay, although the airline said its customers will be able to fly to their destinations.